4. Born in Berlin, Germany to an upper-middle class family, he joined the army at a young age and quickly began studying the philosophy of Marxism after his involvement there. In another side, the critical theory of technology will be bringing discourse in instrumentalization theory, post-technological rationality, and technological democratization perspective. 3. Herbert Marcuse (1898â1979) was a leftist, sociologist, and philosopher from the Frankfurt School who specialized in critical theory. The very essence of humanity is free-conscious activity and the ability to use reflection in making decisions. Contrasted with the fantastic and insane aspects of its rationality, the realm of the irrational becomes the home of the really rational--of the ideas which may "promote the art of life." The Idea of Rationality: Critical Theory and its Discontents . 6. According to Adorno and Marcuse, the locus of individual freedom lies in a. the development of new aesthetic fashions. Marcuse remained in the United States and was offered a full position at Brandeis University. The terms "transcend" and "transcendence" are used throughout in the empirical, critical sense: they designate tendencies in theory and practice which, in a given society, overshoot" the established universe of discourse and action toward its historical alternatives (real possibilities). Individualistic rationality- (marcuse) is "a critical and oppositional attitude that derived freedom of action from the unrestricted liberty of thought and conscience and measured all social standards and relations by the individual's rational self-interest" technological rationality. In this work Marcuse stresses the forces of technology and rationality rather than the psychoanalytic, extending Weberâs analysis and that of earlier critical theory. Marcuse appears to argue that instrumentally rational forms have taken over from more substantively rational forms. ... Marcuse remained in the United States and was of fered a full posi tion b y Brandeis Universit y. Although his work rings similar bells as Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno at â¦ For the critical theorists, the source of distorted consciousness can be found in the a. non-economics of economics b. non-family of family c. irresponsibility of responsibility *d. irrationality of rationality. Technological rationality replaced reason and leveled individuality. Adorno returned to Germany in August 1953 and was soon involved again in empirical research, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in the analysis of industrial relations for the Mannesmann Company. While Critical Theory is often thought of narrowly as referring to the Frankfurt School that begins with Horkheimer and Adorno and stretches to Marcuse and Habermas, any philosophical approach with similar practical aims could be called a âcritical theory,â including feminism, critical race theory, and some forms of post-colonial criticism. For creating such an environment, Marcuse 5. Concluding Thoughts. Marcuse and Instrumental Rationality Accomplishment of such a synthesis will give reason a critical ... Marcuse and other critical theorists, in need of revolutionary change for a better reality in which the environment of freedom will come to exist. Marcuse's critique of technological rationality has strong Marxian elements of alienation interwoven throughout it, revealing the insidious role it plays in society.